(DTM) Data for Testing DTM Generation Methodologies. Generation of Mathematical Digital Terrain Model (DTM) Data for Testing DTM Generation Methodologies. Sorry to dump on you but here is problem #2 that just happened. The results show that the positional accuracy varies in the study area between ∼0.1 m in the south to ∼2.7 m in the north. Because of this melting, many lands are at the mercy of rising The back sight target was positioned over a known ground control point and its height was, measured to relate the target location to the ground coordinates. Shanghai International Automobile City (Group) Co., Ltd, Shanghai, P.R.China, * E-mail: zouyajie@gmail.com (YJZ); yinhai@uw.edu (YHW), Affiliation metre/feet or nano-metre/inch? This paper follows upon previous published research by the author regarding the origin and application of her new approach to rural international infrastructure design, Contextual Engineering, and uses ethnographic qualitative analysis to identify key conditions that justify the Contextual Engineering discipline to more effectively serve rural clients from alternately developed societies. Department of Transportation Engineering, Myongji University, Seoul, Korea. To test the performance of multi-layered roadway recognition method, we chose the Interstate Freeway No.5 southbound in the downtown area of Portland, OR, which contains 17 overlapping segments including interchanges and a double layer bridge. Gregory, K. (1998), Special Edition Using Visual C++ 6. In Malaysia, the vertical accuracy (both absolute and relative) stands at between A survey of international engineering practitioners, combined with the author's personal journals from 18 international project experiences are qualitatively analyzed using nVivo software to develop a stronger understanding of what motivates stakeholders to undertake humanitarian engineering work, how they incorporate place-based conditions and how their decision-making affects intervention outcomes. The elevation extraction method includes GE viewbox parameters determination, Coordinate transformation, Multi-layered roadway recognition and data correction, and Slope segmentation and grade calculation. Mean absolute error (MAE) and root mean squared error (RMSE) are used to assess the accuracy and the test results show MAE, RMSE and standard deviation of GE roadway elevation error are 1.32 meters, 2.27 meters and 2.27 meters, respectively. 3rd edition, Oxford Univ. Roadway elevation data play a critical role in a wide range of transportation analysis and design applications including roadway geometric design, infrastructure construction, safety analysis, fuel consumption estimation, highway capacity analysis, and emergency evacuation planning [1–3]. The results show that the positional accuracy varies in the study area between ∼0.1 m in the south to ∼2.7 m in the north. No, Google Earth is not reliable for that kind of slope accuracy for specific coordinates. Terrain Zonum (2015), Retrieved on October 12, 2015, from http://www.zonums.com/gmaps/terrain.php. Then checked in another place and found the same thing. In general, Google Earth elevation data can be used only for investigation and preliminary studies with low cost. Since the shape of natural surfaces varies in a random way, the network of points surveyed to represent the shape of the ground will usually form a. random pattern consisting of horizontal coordinates with associated heights. Nonetheless, studies have concluded that Google Earth produces statistically satisfactory elevation data when compared to in-situ surveying techniques [12. The point of origin of each UTM zone is the intersection of the, The transformation formulas are truncated version of Transverse Mercator: flattening, series, which were described in Bomford, 1977. Yes A rolling space interval is utilized to check whether a grade change occurs. Is the Subject Area "Transportation" applicable to this article? Azeez (2005). Specifying, In the Grid Residuals dialog, the columns for X, Y, and Z and the column to, and multiply the reported residual values by, of the surface at the points specified in the, . Topographic maps are already sufficient for this use, ‘Previous Slope’ feature is now available in MiTS 2. All we know is that Google uses multiple data sources, ranging from LiDAR to SRTM to some other unknown sources. The accuracy is highly dependent on the surveying application, data, technique and the. For more information about PLOS Subject Areas, click here. From the sense of motion of the active faults in northern Luzon and of the major bounding faults in central Luzon, the nature of deformation in these regions can be inferred. Why are red and blue light refracted differently if they travel at the same speed in the same medium? If the terrain is, highly vegetated, slope steeply than accuracy may be further reduced. The collection of information on case study area was performed in two steps. This section implements and validates the extraction method developed in this study. these islands are particularly susceptible to sea level rise (SLR) risks. Overall, it is found that the high accuracy elevation data available from GE provide a reliable data source for various transportation applications. Unfortunately Google doesn’t want to disclose at where. (1987), Computer Graphics for Surveying. Golden Software, Inc., Golden, Colorado, U.S.A. Google (2015), About Google Earth: Understanding Google Earth imagery. No, Is the Subject Area "Data processing" applicable to this article? The correlation was positive, This total, station has the possibility to measure points up to 2400 meters on hard rock surface. No, Is the Subject Area "Fuels" applicable to this article? The density of elevation data varies according to location, with most of it sourced from Satellite Radar Topographic Mapping data with a vertical resolution of 30 meters and a horizontal resolution of 90 meters. Generation of Mathematical Digital Terrain Model. height difference greater than 5m (RMSE > 2.5 m). station levelling technique, as reference or benchmark within Aba metropolis in Nigeria. e0175756. Golden Software, Inc., Future research may continue our investigation along the following four directions: First, the extraction method itself can be improved by testing the accuracy of corrected multi-layered roadway elevation and the calculated grade, and by tuning of the thresholds used in the method to make them suitable for different roadway types. 3.2 Exporting the elevation data of Google Earth, Google Earth elevation data of each region were extracted using free source online tool, named Terrain Zonum (Terrain Zonum, 2015) via this website. instrument height to relate the location of the instrument to the known ground coordinates. too. [19] tested the horizontal and vertical positional accuracy of the GE terrain model in the Big Bend region, Texas, USA. The Elevation API returns data for single point queries of the highest accuracy possible. But for quantitative studies, consultants should engage other more accurate methods. A joint team of Libyan and Italian archaeologists, geologists, topographers and technicians of the local Department of Antiquities and Chieti University started in 1999 a project of surveying and mapping the southern and eastern parts of the necropolis, giving birth to a GIS using differential GPS and Robotic total station for the positioning and recording of the tombs, as well as multispectral HD satellite images, previously orthorectified and georeferred, combined with old maps and RADAR data for a highly detailed topographic base, up to DEM and DTM. PLoS ONE 12(4): In this paper, the accuracy of Google Earth (G.E.) Click through the PLOS taxonomy to find articles in your field. SRTM stands for Shuttle Radar Topography Mission. American Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing. Yes Topcon (2013), Retrieved on March 25, 2013 from http://www.topcon.co.jp/en/index.html, https://content.sciendo.com uses cookies to store information that enables us to optimize our website and make browsing more comfortable for you. Stack Exchange network consists of 176 Q&A communities including Stack Overflow, the largest, most trusted online community for developers to learn, share their knowledge, and build their careers. I suppose that in the US the results may be even better. 53-68. Error based on the actual and predicated coordinate, For each region of the case study, total station survey was used for getting the ground. 25, No 4, pp 257-267. . These are provided for entertainment only and should not be used for any navigational or other purpose requiring any accuracy whatsoever". Third, elevation data may be combined with the GIS data on an online and easy to access platform to support various transportation analyses on roadway networks. The positive mean error (6.77 ± 1.79 m) indicated that the SRTM DEM was slightly underestimating the elevation and this pattern gradually increases towards higher elevation. Asking for help, clarification, or responding to other answers. The, software reads the coordinates of points in the form of WGS84 latitude and longitude and. Designed by Elegant Themes | Powered by WordPress. Slope length and roadway grade rather than the elevation of a single sampling point are useful for some transportation applications (i.e., fuel consumption calculation, eco-routing, etc.). It is a product of Golden, Inc., Surfer software reads the input data in the form of X, Y, Z ground coordinates of the, irregularly and regularly spaced data points and creates a regularly gridded DTM for each, region from which quasi-continuous surfaces could be produced. From the time when it was first launched in 2005, satellite data generated from Google Earth are freely available online. As mentioned in the introduction section, there are several other data sources providing global or regional DEMs. One of these islands is Failaka, a small island in Kuwait lying on the El-Ashmawy, K., and A.B. 3 – 2016, INVESTIGATION OF THE ACCURACY OF GOOGLE EARTH. Que, USA. Analysis of the results of geodetic measurements of the reference base segments showed the discrepancy between the increase of the increase of the measured distance. This paper proposes a. method of generating DEM by using Google Earth elevation data which is easier and free. To extract the roadway elevation and grade, a Google Earth Elevation Data Extraction System (GEEDES) was developed at the Smart Transportation Applications and Research Laboratory (STAR Lab) of the University of Washington using the GE API. The, accuracy of the Google earth derived elevation data are reported using root mean square error, (RMSE), mean error (ME) and maximum absolute erro, were computed using the ground coordinates of 200 reference points for each region of the, case study. The reference data was collected with total station survey. Visual analysis has been undertaken using 2D and 3D views of the DEM; in addition, statistical analysis has been performed for assessment of the validity of the visual techniques in doing such analysis. elevation dataset in particular. 16YF1411900). Generation of Mathematical Digital Terrain Model (DTM) Data for Testing DTM Generation Methodologies. For more information about PLOS Subject Areas, click This refers to decrease in DEM smoothing with the increase in the power of the IDW. The reference data was collected with total station survey. the evaluation results for the accuracy of the model showed that the MAE and RMSE before correction was 1.28 m and 3.95 m respectively, higher than that after correction, which were 0.74 and 1.30 m correspondingly. sea levels. Accuracy assessment using Google Earth Engine? This demonstrates that the proposed extraction method is capable of differentiating roadway surface elevation by direction, indicating that the extraction method can locate the extracting route accurately with GE. The DEM from the sampled points for each region was created using Surfer Software, (Golden Software, 2012) to establish comparison consistency. The USGS NED data are available at a grid spacing of 1 arc-second (about 30 meters) for the conterminous USA, and at 1/3 and 1/9 arc-second grids (approximately 10 and 3 meters, respectively) for parts of the nation.

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